This story was originally published Oct. 11, 2021, and has been periodically updated with additional information. Latest update Jan. 14, 2022.

Recommendations are based on interviews with medical professionals in Montana. This article should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decisions.


Coronaviruses are a particular family of viruses, and according to the National Institutes of Health, there are hundreds of them that circulate in animals including bats, pigs and camels. The specific coronavirus at the root of the current pandemic is known as SARS-CoV-2. SARS stands for “severe acute respiratory syndrome.” When you hear it referred to as a “novel” coronavirus, that’s another way of saying it’s new. COVID-19 is the name given to the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which typically presents as a respiratory infection.


As of Jan. 14, new COVID-19 cases in the state are climbing along with the 14-day average of national cases. Montana’s average daily cases per 100,000 people jumped by 340% over the last two weeks according to the New York Times’ nationwide ranking. On Friday, Jan. 14, the state reported 2,177 new cases, 11,448 active cases, 148 active hospitalizations and an aggregate death count of 2,945. As of Jan. 14, the Times listed Montana as having an 33% increase in the state’s two-week average of daily hospitalizations per 100,000 people. State data shows that Montana’s vaccination rate is currently at 53% of the state’s eligible population. You can check MTFP’s coronavirus report, updated Monday through Friday, for the latest Montana-specific information.


Omicron became the dominant variant in Montana near the end of December, making up 84% of positive tests sequenced the week preceding Jan. 8. As of Jan. 11, omicron cases had been detected in more than half of the state’s local and tribal jurisdictions, according to the state’s weekly epidemiology report

The new strain of the coronavirus, labeled a variant of concern by the World Health Organization, was first identified in Montana on Dec. 20. The variant became the dominant strain of the virus in the U.S. the week of Dec. 20. 


Scientists are still studying how the omicron variant affects humans, and how COVID inoculation stands up against the new strain. Research thus far does not indicate that omicron causes more severe illness than the delta variant, but scientists stress that omicron is threatening to the U.S. in part because of how easily it spreads through vaccinated and unvaccinated populations. 

According to one study from a prominent health insurer in South Africa, inoculation via prior infection or vaccination is thought to be less effective at stopping omicron infections. But vaccines were still able to prevent serious illness and hospitalization among 70% of people infected with the new strain, giving some researchers hope that vaccines can ward off the new variant’s worst symptoms. 

Speaking at a press conference on Jan. 4, Gov. Greg Gianforte said he is encouraged by signs that omicron may cause less serious illness than prior variants, and stressed that Montanans should continue to seek out vaccinations to protect themselves and others against the virus.


Pandemic burnout is no joke. Despite our collective exhaustion, though, health officials continue to urge Americans to follow conservative safety protocols that have been the best available public health tools over the last two years.

That includes limiting in-person gatherings (particularly with large groups), wearing a high-quality mask in indoor public spaces, and staying home if you’re feeling unwell. Above all, scientists and medical professionals are imploring adults and children older than 5 to get vaccinated, including booster shots

Any social gatherings, especially with elderly and otherwise vulnerable people, will be safer if attendees scale back social events in the preceding days and weeks to limit exposure to omicron and delta. Another valuable safety tool is testing: Experts recommend taking an over-the-counter rapid COVID test (or two) immediately before major events to detect active infections. 

In a nutshell, take as many precautions as possible.


Every medical expert Montana Free Press spoke with said the most important thing you can do is get vaccinated. Beyond that, there are lots of steps you can take to mitigate your risk of contracting and spreading the virus. Those include washing your hands regularly, maintaining six feet of social distance from people you don’t live with, and avoiding crowded indoor spaces and poorly ventilated areas. The Centers for Disease Control also says that if you have to cough or sneeze, you should cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your elbow and immediately wash your hands afterwards.

The most notable precaution, and the one we’ve all become familiar with over the past year and a half, is wearing a face mask. MTFP wrote about the science behind masking in September, but health care providers continue to stress that face coverings are a safe and easy method of protecting yourself and those around you from COVID-19. Masks should not be used on children younger than two years old.

“We’re just going to keep putting it out there,” Montana Nurses Association Executive Director Vicky Byrd said. “Wear a mask, whether you’re vaccinated or not.”


Among its many COVID-19 related resources, the CDC has a webpage solely dedicated to the various kinds of masks people might use during the pandemic. Those range from disposable blue surgical masks to the heavier-duty N95 masks, which are technically called respirators, not masks. According to numerous sources including Johns Hopkins University, masks should be made with at least two layers of fabric and cover the nose, mouth and chin without any large gaps. The CDC recommends that if you’re going to use a neck gaiter as a facial covering, you should fold it over into two layers.

Health care providers are continuing to study different types of masks to learn more about their varying levels of effectiveness. For now, Byrd’s advice is “something is better than nothing.”


The same methods that work for adults work for most children, too. (More on vaccinations for children a few paragraphs down.) In fact, some public school districts have made masking a requirement to minimize the spread of infection between children and adults. Not everyone is OK with that, but it does conform with the CDC’s current recommendations for K-12 schools.


The Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services is currently prioritizing COVID tests at the state lab. That means if you are symptomatic or hospitalized, or are involved in a large-scale outbreak of the virus, your test (usually a type called a PCR test) will be top priority. 

If you are planning to travel out of state, DPHHS has a list of locations where Montanans can get travel-tested for COVID-19. The CDC also maintains a travel planner where you can search your travel destination for COVID-19 guidelines and restrictions specific to your travel destination.

Some employers, county health departments and K-12 schools have access to rapid tests through the state’s supply — nonprofits and government entities can request boxes of those tests from DPHHS at this link or contact the state’s rapid test coordinator, Dana Fejes, at or 406-444-5520.


Yes, if you can find one. This year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several at-home rapid test kits for COVID-19, which are designed to be inexpensive, easy to use and widely available over the counter at pharmacies. The manufacturers of these tests are still working to keep up with demand — the White House recently announced plans to purchase half a billion of those tests and distribute them for free to Americans who request them as soon as January. The Biden administration has also said it will invest $1 billion to quadruple the number of kits on shelves by the end of the year. Check with your local Walgreens, CVS or other drugstore for availability in your area.


There are a lot of ways for adults and children as young as 5 to get vaccinated in Montana right now. Some local health departments around the state are continuing to offer weekly public vaccine clinics this fall, and hospitals and pharmacies throughout the state are still booking appointments for people looking to get vaccinated. The CDC has a dedicated search engine that can help you locate the nearest vaccination options in your area at


On Oct. 29, the FDA expanded emergency use authorization for the Pfizer vaccine to include children age 5-11. The FDA further noted that based on thorough evaluation, the vaccine was shown to be 90.7% effective in preventing COVID-19 within that age range — a rate of effectiveness comparable to that among people age 16-25. Side effects from the vaccine have been mild in this age group, such as soreness or pain at the injection site, headaches and fatigue. No serious side effects have been reported in the ongoing study of more than 3,000 children. On Nov. 2, the CDC followed the announcement with one of its own, issuing a recommendation that the estimated 28 million children in the U.S. between 5 and 11 be vaccinated, and encouraging health care providers to “begin vaccinating them as soon as possible.”

“Vaccinating children will help protect them from getting COVID-19 and therefore reducing their risk of severe disease, hospitalizations or developing long-term COVID-19 complications,” the CDC announcement said. “Getting your children vaccinated can help protect them against COVID-19, as well as reduce disruptions to in-person learning and activities by helping curb community transmission.”

The CDC added that plans are underway to scale up distribution of pediatric COVID-19 vaccinations starting Nov. 8. According to the CDC’s vaccination search tool, the Pfizer vaccine for children is available in Montana’s major cities. There is less availability in rural parts of the state, including the southeast and northeast portions as well as along the Hi-Line.

For more information about how to get your child vaccinated, consult your child’s pediatrician or your local health department. And if you have any questions about the safety of the vaccine or potential side effects in children, the Mayo Clinic has an extensive FAQ on those very subjects. Neither the Moderna nor the J&J vaccine has yet been approved for use in people under the age of 18.


In a nutshell: medical professionals. Depending on where in the state you’re getting jabbed, that could be a doctor, a nurse, a pharmacist or an EMT volunteering at your local mass vaccination clinic. But medical training is a requirement.

Montana did recently expand its list of authorized inoculators in response to the fall surge and a subsequent uptick in vaccine demand. On Sept. 14, the Board of Pharmacy reinstated an emergency rule that temporarily waives limits on the number of pharmacy technicians or technicians-in-training that a pharmacist can supervise in administering vaccines. The emergency rule had been lifted in June when Gov. Gianforte rescinded Montana’s state of emergency declaration, and was reinstated last month to help resolve concerns about staffing shortages expressed by pharmacies in August. The rule also extends to the administration of other inoculations including the influenza vaccine.


The short answer is: yes. Natural immunity from COVID-19 may offer a degree of protection for some people, but medical experts stress that the duration and durability of that shield is not a guarantee. In a Nov. 22 interview with NPR, the Biden administration’s chief medical adviser Anthony Fauci said he strongly recommends individuals get vaccinated after having COVID-19 in order to get an even higher level of protection. 

“If you get infected, recover and get that degree of immunity and then get vaccinated, the level of your protection is the highest of any of the situations,” Fauci said. 

Earlier in November, the Mayo Clinic also issued recommendations about later vaccinations for individuals who test positive for COVID-19 as part of a broader vaccine guidance. For anyone who received a treatment of monoclonal antibodies after testing positive for COVID-19, the CDC recommends waiting 90 days to receive a vaccine. 


The Biden administration in November announced several plans to begin requiring vaccinations for different parts of the population through federal rules and regulations, a strategy the White House described as essential given America’s lagging vaccination rates (roughly 48% of eligible Montanans have not yet received a vaccine). Those vaccine mandates have been challenged in court with mixed results so far. 

There are three main vaccine requirements to be aware of. One is for current and future federal contractors, a requirement that has been temporarily blocked by federal judges in Georgia and Missouri. Another mandate applies to health care workers at facilities that receive Medicaid and Medicare funding, which has also been stalled by a federal judge in Louisiana. 

Last, there is a requirement from OSHA (the Occupational Safety and Health Administration) that employers with more than 100 employees require vaccination or weekly testing. After initially being blocked by a federal appeals court in the 5th Circuit, another panel of judges in the 6th Circuit overturned that decision, allowing the administration’s mandate to stand. Plaintiffs have now asked the U.S. Supreme Court to intervene, though the high court has not weighed in as of Dec. 22.

Biden’s Labor Department has said it will not begin enforcement of the OSHA rule until Feb. 9. 


Boosters are now widely available to anyone who’s six months out from their last dose. On November 19, the FDA approved Pfizer and Moderna booster shots for anyone 18 years and older, following the administration’s emergency use authorization of Pfizer’s vaccine in late September. Previously, boosters had only been available to limited populations based on their vulnerability to the virus.

On Oct. 20, the FDA also granted emergency use authorization of boosters for the Moderna vaccine and the single-dose Johnson & Johnson (i.e., Janssen) vaccine. The Moderna booster is now approved for the same cohort as the Pfizer booster, and may be administered at least six months after the second Moderna shot. The Janssen booster is approved for all people 18 and older and may be administered at least two months after the initial shot. The FDA also granted approval to mix and match, meaning people can get any of the available FDA-authorized boosters regardless of what vaccine they originally received, provided they meet the eligibility requirements for that booster.

In Montana, local health departments in larger cities are offering boosters. A complete list of county and tribal health departments, including contact information, can be found on the DPHHS website.


While researchers are still working to understand the impacts of the novel coronavirus on pregnancy, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports suggest that pregnant women are at higher risk of more severe illness with COVID-19. The ACOG has its own FAQ addressing a long list of issues related to COVID-19 and pregnancy. Those include all the health precautions mentioned above, as well as keeping all prenatal and postpartum care visits and following up with your doctor about any questions you have on the subject.


Montana Hospital Association President Rich Rasmussen told MTFP that if you’re feeling any symptoms of COVID-19, it’s important that you get tested. If you do have it, he said, your condition could deteriorate rapidly, and you have the ability to spread the disease to others. The quicker you get on top of the situation, the faster health care professionals can help you and keep the illness from getting worse.


The answer depends on your situation and where in Montana you’re living. For starters, there’s an important distinction to make between quarantine and isolation. The former, as recommended by the CDC, is strictly for individuals who have been exposed but have not yet been confirmed to have COVID-19. The latter is for people who have tested positive.

Isolation is still a tactic being used throughout the state to prevent the spread of the virus, and public health officials have encouraged people with symptoms to remain home even if they haven’t received their test results yet. Hayley Devlin, public information officer for the Missoula City-County Health Department, said people in isolation should maintain as much separation from others in their household as possible. That means sleeping in different rooms, using different bathrooms and wearing face masks when interactions are necessary. 

“If the person is feeling well enough to at least get out of bed and go to the door, I would recommend whoever is helping them, just set the food by the door and walk away,” Devlin said. “There are cases, though, where people are so sick they can’t get out of bed, so I would just recommend [that you] wear a face mask, a face shield if you have it … and hand them stuff as quick as possible.”

The quarantine picture changed this summer with the implementation of House Bill 702, which bars government agencies and private companies from discriminating based on vaccination status. Following the CDC’s recommendations on quarantine — namely, that unvaccinated people don’t have to — would potentially put counties in violation of HB 702. Missoula County is still sending quarantine orders to close contacts of positive cases, but other counties throughout the state have adopted softer language, referring to quarantine as a “recommendation” or “instruction.” Laurel Riek, administrator for the disease control and prevention division in Lewis and Clark County, said her office is continuing to encourage close contacts to follow CDC guidelines. For vaccinated people, that means wearing a mask and getting tested between three and five days after exposure. For unvaccinated people, that means quarantining for 10 days and getting tested between five and seven days after exposure.

“That is our expectation,” Riek said. “It does not have the weight of an order.”


A number of other home interventions have been rumored to help prevent and treat COVID-19 infection over the past year, including hydroxychloroquine and, more recently, the horse deworming agent ivermectin. Carley Robertson, a family medicine specialist in Havre and president of the Montana Medical Association, said those therapeutics have been “really debunked in the medical literature” and the FDA is not recommending their use.

“[People] should not go down to Big R or North 40 or whatever and buy ivermectin that is designed for livestock. They should not be doing that,” Robertson said. “Those are formulated for veterinary use. They are not formulated for human use.”


Yes, and it’s called molnupiravir. It was developed by the multinational pharmaceutical giant Merck, which has applied to the FDA for emergency use authorization. The pill is designed to prevent positive COVID-19 cases from becoming severe. You can read more about molnupiravir in this FAQ published by Yale Medicine. However, Merck’s pill has not yet been approved by the FDA, and scientists are still working to understand its potential effects on a variety of people.


That’s going to depend heavily on a number of factors, including how severe your symptoms are and whether you have any underlying medical conditions that could exacerbate the situation. Robertson said most people who get COVID-19 won’t end up in the hospital. For patients who are able to deal with the disease at home, providers may recommend extra doses of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc or melatonin to aid the immune system. Robertson said a two-week regimen of low-dose aspirin is routinely used to reduce certain symptoms such as nausea, and occasionally patients may be asked to come into a clinic for a liter of IV fluid. Consult with your physician before starting any medication regimen.

If you are not vaccinated and are at risk of progressing to a more severe case of COVID-19, Butte family physician Wendy Grace, who has been treating COVID patients both in and out of hospital settings, said you may also receive an infusion of monoclonal antibodies, a treatment the FDA approved for emergency use last fall. That may also be the case for people with diabetes, high blood pressure, or people who are immunocompromised. However, Rasmussen cautioned that Montanans shouldn’t count on the treatment being available, which is one of several reasons why he encourages people to get vaccinated.

“There is no guarantee that the hospitals will have the monoclonal antibodies to treat you. They’re in short supply,” Rasmussen said. “[Montana] is doing a great job of distributing them across the state, but at any given moment, you don’t know what that supply is at that particular facility that you present to.”


According to Robertson, most COVID-19 patients who are sick enough to require hospitalization are typically put on oxygen and receive a few days of steroids. Treatment can involve a host of health care professionals including a physician, a team of nurses, a pharmacist, a respiratory therapist and a physical therapist. Because COVID-19 can have a wide range of negative effects on various organs and bodily systems, those professionals will be on alert for any complications that might arise. 

“COVID can cause kidney failure, it can cause respiratory failure,” Grace said. “It can cause strokes, it can cause blood clots in your lungs. All of these things typically require support in the hospital.”

Rasmussen said COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized should also expect to be separated from the rest of the hospital population to reduce the spread of the virus. For the most part, he added, how the hospital handles your situation when you walk in the door will likely be the same throughout the state.

“We know that every patient is at risk for a potential bad outcome because of the severity of this illness,” Rasmussen said. “So whether you’re in a small facility or you’re in a larger community hospital, the approaches are going to be the same: evaluating the level and the acuity of the disease and immediately delivering appropriate resources to address the condition.”


Kalispell pediatric hospitalist Courtney Paterson said that while it’s true children generally don’t get as sick as adults when they get COVID-19, they can still “get pretty sick.” She’s cared for a range of young coronavirus patients from newborns with fevers to teenagers who have ended up in the ICU on ventilators and multiple medications. It may be less common, she said, but it’s “certainly possible.” 

“The biggest thing is that when kids are critically ill like that, they truly need a dedicated pediatric space,” said Paterson, who also serves on the Montana Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ executive committee. “And so this isn’t as simple as if a 12 year old gets critically ill, we’ll just put them in the adult ICU with all the other adult COVID patients. That’s really not our best practice of care.”

Paterson explained that treating a child with COVID-19 requires a dedicated pediatric team, and specialized strategies to help make them more comfortable. At Logan Health, she said, that has included allowing parents to be at their child’s bedside and staff wearing badges displaying their faces without personal protective equipment. Windows in pediatric spaces have also allowed health care workers to interact with young patients safely while their faces are uncovered.

“When we’re outside the room with our PPE off, we can actually play games through the glass so that they know what we look like without all that stuff on,” Paterson said. “It is a process to constantly reassure patients they’re in a safe place so that we try to alleviate anxiety.”

One specific COVID-19 associated issue that health care workers have to be on the lookout for with pediatric patients is multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, or MIS-C. As the COVID-19 infection begins to wane, Paterson said, a child’s immune system can become confused and begin attacking the body instead of the virus. That can result in ongoing fever, stomach pains, vomiting and skin rash. It’s rare, Paterson added, but it’s where hospitals have seen the most morbidity among children from COVID-19.

“We had quite a few kids here in Kalispell in the last year that have come in with that and needed ICU-level support because their body is so inflamed [that] it’s attacking all of their organs, that they need critical care to be able to get through that,” she said.


The medical experts interviewed by MTFP said that if you do need treatment, you should not delay seeking it. Whether it’s chest pain or a broken bone, putting off a hospital visit could make the situation worse. However, Butte physician Grace noted that if you can avoid the hospital right now, you should. Facilities are overwhelmed and resources are stretched thin. If a trip to the emergency room or clinic is unavoidable, she said, hospital staff will guide you through what to do to keep yourself and those around you safe.

“We’re asking people to wear masks, and most hospitals are limiting visitors to some degree,” Grace said. “But I think trying to avoid the hospital in the first place is the trick.”


Unanimously, everyone interviewed for this story agreed you should consult your primary care physician. And if you don’t have one, they recommend you get one.

“You start with your provider,” Byrd said. “Don’t go to Google, don’t go to Snapchat, don’t go to Facebook.”

Staff reporter Alex Sakariassen covers the education beat and the state Legislature for Montana Free Press. Alex spent the past decade writing long-form narrative stories that spotlight the people, the politics, and the wilds of Montana. A North Dakota native, he splits his free time between Missoula’s ski slopes and the quiet trout water of the Rocky Mountain Front. Contact Alex by email at

Mara covers Montana’s social welfare, criminal justice and legal systems. She also tracks policy and social issues that affect LGBTQ+ people. Prior to joining Montana Free Press, Mara worked at Slate and WNYC, where she focused on radio and podcasts. She got her start in audio journalism as an intern at Montana Public Radio. Contact Mara at, 406-465-3386 ext. 3, and follow her on Twitter.