This story was originally published Oct. 11, 2021, and has been periodically updated with additional information. Latest update Mar. 30, 2022.
Recommendations are based on interviews with medical professionals in Montana. This article should not be construed as medical advice. Please consult with your physician before making any medical decisions.
WHAT EXACTLY IS COVID-19?
Coronaviruses are a particular family of viruses, and according to the National Institutes of Health, there are hundreds of them that circulate in animals including bats, pigs and camels. The specific coronavirus at the root of the current pandemic is known as SARS-CoV-2. SARS stands for “severe acute respiratory syndrome.” When you hear it referred to as a “novel” coronavirus, that’s another way of saying it’s new. COVID-19 is the name given to the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which typically presents as a respiratory infection.
WHAT’S HAPPENING WITH OMICRON IN MONTANA?
Omicron became the dominant variant in Montana near the end of December after first being identified in the state on Dec. 20. As of the state’s latest March epidemiology report, 100% of the COVID-19 cases sequenced during the prior week were confirmed to be omicron infections.
IS OMICRON DANGEROUS?
Scientists estimate omicron to generally cause less severe illness than the delta variant, though it can still cause serious sickness, hospitalization and death, particularly among people who are not vaccinated. Omicron is also highly contagious and spreads more easily than previous strains, even among people who are vaccinated.
Vaccines and booster shots have been shown to markedly increase protection from hospitalization due to omicron. Speaking at a press conference Jan. 4, Gov. Greg Gianforte said he is encouraged by signs that omicron may cause less serious illness than prior variants, and stressed that Montanans should continue to seek out vaccinations to protect themselves and others against the virus.
SHOULD I CANCEL MY SOCIAL PLANS?
Pandemic burnout is no joke. Despite our collective exhaustion, though, health officials continue to urge Americans to follow conservative safety protocols if you’re in a community with high rates of transmission or aren’t feeling well.
Those precautions include limiting in-person gatherings (particularly with large groups), wearing a high-quality mask in indoor public spaces, and staying home if you’re feeling unwell. Above all, scientists and medical professionals are imploring adults and children older than 5 to get vaccinated, including booster shots.
Any social gatherings, especially with elderly and otherwise vulnerable people, will be safer if attendees scale back social events in the preceding days and weeks to limit exposure to the virus. Another valuable safety tool is testing: Experts recommend taking an over-the-counter rapid COVID test (or two) immediately before major events to detect active infections.
In a nutshell, take as many precautions as possible.
WHAT CAN I DO TO REDUCE MY RISK OF GETTING OR SPREADING COVID-19?
Every medical expert Montana Free Press spoke with said the most important thing you can do is get vaccinated. Beyond that, there are lots of steps you can take to mitigate your risk of contracting and spreading the virus. Those include washing your hands regularly and avoiding crowded indoor spaces and poorly ventilated areas. The Centers for Disease Control also says that if you have to cough or sneeze, you should cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your elbow and immediately wash your hands afterwards.
The most notable precaution, and the one we’ve all become familiar with over the past year and a half, is wearing a face mask. MTFP has written about the science behind masking, and health care providers continue to stress that face coverings are a safe and easy method of protecting yourself and those around you from COVID-19. Masks should not be used on children younger than two years old.
“We’re just going to keep putting it out there,” Montana Nurses Association Executive Director Vicky Byrd said. “Wear a mask, whether you’re vaccinated or not.”
IS THERE A PARTICULAR TYPE OF MASK I SHOULD USE?
Among its many COVID-19-related resources, the CDC has a webpage solely dedicated to the various kinds of masks people might use during the pandemic. Those range from disposable blue surgical masks to the heavier-duty N95 masks, which are technically called respirators. Health officials are urging everyone to wear the most protective type of mask possible — i.e., not homemade or fabric masks — in indoor, public settings.
HOW CAN I KEEP MY CHILD SAFE?
The same methods that work for adults work for most children, too. (More on vaccinations for children a few paragraphs down.) In fact, some public school districts have made masking a requirement to minimize the spread of infection between children and adults. Not everyone is OK with that, but it does conform with the CDC’s current recommendations for K-12 schools.
WHEN CAN I GET TESTED FOR COVID-19?
Many pharmacies, doctors offices and public health departments are offering different types of testing across Montana. If you’re looking for a highly sensitive test that can detect traces of the virus even in people without symptoms, call around to see if a local provider is offering PCR tests, which require specialized laboratory processing.
If you are planning to travel out of state, DPHHS has a list of locations where Montanans can get travel-tested for COVID-19. The CDC also maintains a travel planner where you can search your travel destination for COVID-19 guidelines and restrictions specific to your travel destination.
Some employers, county health departments and K-12 schools have access to rapid tests through the state’s supply — nonprofits and government entities can request boxes of those tests from DPHHS at this link or contact the state’s rapid test coordinator, Dana Fejes, at firstname.lastname@example.org or 406-444-5520.
CAN’T I JUST TAKE A TEST AT HOME?
Yes, if you can find one. This year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several at-home rapid test kits for COVID-19 that are designed to be inexpensive, easy to use and widely available over the counter at pharmacies. Check with your local Walgreens, CVS or other drugstore for availability in your area.
President Biden and Gov. Gianforte have also launched various initiatives to make at-home rapid tests more available. You can order tests that will ship directly to your doorstep through the federal program here. Find out more about Montana’s rapid test distribution for the general public here.
HOW CAN I GET THE COVID-19 VACCINE?
There are a lot of ways for adults and children as young as 5 to get vaccinated in Montana right now. The CDC has a dedicated search engine that can help you locate the nearest vaccination options in your area at vaccines.gov. Some local health departments around the state are continuing to offer weekly public vaccine clinics this fall, and hospitals and pharmacies throughout the state are still booking appointments for people looking to get vaccinated.
CAN MY CHILD GET THE VACCINE?
On Oct. 29, the FDA expanded emergency use authorization for the Pfizer vaccine to include children age 5-11. The FDA further noted that based on thorough evaluation, the vaccine was shown to be 90.7% effective in preventing COVID-19 within that age range — a rate of effectiveness comparable to that among people age 16-25. Side effects from the vaccine have been mild in this age group, such as soreness or pain at the injection site, headaches and fatigue. No serious side effects have been reported in the ongoing study of more than 3,000 children. On Nov. 2, the CDC followed the announcement with one of its own, issuing a recommendation that the estimated 28 million children in the U.S. between 5 and 11 be vaccinated, and encouraging health care providers to “begin vaccinating them as soon as possible.”
“Vaccinating children will help protect them from getting COVID-19 and therefore reducing their risk of severe disease, hospitalizations or developing long-term COVID-19 complications,” the CDC announcement said. “Getting your children vaccinated can help protect them against COVID-19, as well as reduce disruptions to in-person learning and activities by helping curb community transmission.”
For more information about how to get your child vaccinated, consult your child’s pediatrician or your local health department. And if you have any questions about the safety of the vaccine or potential side effects in children, the Mayo Clinic has an extensive FAQ on those very subjects. Neither the Moderna nor the J&J vaccine has yet been approved for use in people under the age of 18.
WHO IS ADMINISTERING THE VACCINE?
In a nutshell: medical professionals. Depending on where in the state you’re getting jabbed, that could be a doctor, a nurse, a pharmacist or an EMT volunteering at your local mass vaccination clinic. But medical training is a requirement.
SHOULD I GET A VACCINE EVEN IF I’VE HAD COVID-19?
The short answer is: yes. Natural immunity from COVID-19 may offer a degree of protection for some people, but medical experts stress that the duration and durability of that shield is not a guarantee. In a November interview with NPR, the Biden administration’s chief medical adviser Anthony Fauci said he strongly recommends individuals get vaccinated after having COVID-19 in order to get an even higher level of protection.
“If you get infected, recover and get that degree of immunity and then get vaccinated, the level of your protection is the highest of any of the situations,” Fauci said.
Earlier in November, the Mayo Clinic also issued recommendations about later vaccinations for individuals who test positive for COVID-19 as part of a broader vaccine guidance. For anyone who received a treatment of monoclonal antibodies after testing positive for COVID-19, the CDC recommends waiting 90 days to receive a vaccine.
IS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REQUIRING ME TO GET A COVID-19 VACCINE?
The Biden administration in November announced several plans to begin requiring vaccinations for different parts of the population through federal rules and regulations, a strategy the White House described as essential given America’s lagging vaccination rates. The administration has since dropped its proposed rule for large employers; another that applies to federal contractors remains stalled in court.
The Biden administration has been successful in requiring employee vaccinations at medical facilities that receive federal funding. The mandate, which survived a series of legal challenges, applies to nearly all staff members unless they have received an exemption for religious or medical reasons. A federal judge in Montana also found in March that the state’s ban on vaccine requirements, House Bill 702, does not currently apply to health care facilities affected by the federal COVID-19 requirements.
WHEN CAN I GET A VACCINE BOOSTER?
Boosters are now widely available to anyone who’s six months out from their last dose. In October, the FDA also granted emergency use authorization of boosters for the Moderna vaccine and the single-dose Johnson & Johnson (i.e., Janssen) vaccine. The Moderna booster is now approved for the same cohort as the Pfizer booster, and may be administered at least six months after the second Moderna shot. The Janssen booster is approved for all people 18 and older and may be administered at least two months after the initial shot. The FDA also granted approval to mix and match, meaning people can get any of the available FDA-authorized boosters regardless of what vaccine they originally received, provided they meet the eligibility requirements for that booster.
In Montana, local health departments in larger cities are offering boosters. A complete list of county and tribal health departments, including contact information, can be found on the DPHHS website.
SHOULD I BE TAKING ANY ADDED PRECAUTIONS IF I’M PREGNANT?
While researchers are still working to understand the impacts of the novel coronavirus on pregnancy, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports suggest that pregnant women are at higher risk of more severe illness with COVID-19. The ACOG has its own FAQ addressing a long list of issues related to COVID-19 and pregnancy. Those include all the health precautions mentioned above, as well as keeping all prenatal and postpartum care visits and following up with your doctor about any questions you have on the subject.
IF I DO GET COVID-19 OR DEVELOP SYMPTOMS, WHAT SHOULD I DO?
Montana Hospital Association President Rich Rasmussen told MTFP that if you’re feeling any symptoms of COVID-19, it’s important that you get tested. If you do have it, he said, your condition could deteriorate rapidly, and you have the ability to spread the disease to others. Anyone with a positive test should isolate themselves from others to avoid spreading the virus. If you’re not feeling well but have not yet tested positive, health officials still recommend quarantining until your symptoms go away. Be in touch with your medical provider and don’t hesitate to seek emergency medical attention if your condition seriously worsens.
WHAT SORT OF TREATMENT WILL I RECEIVE IF I DO GET COVID-19?
That’s going to depend heavily on a number of factors, including how severe your symptoms are and whether you have any underlying medical conditions that could exacerbate the situation. Robertson said most people who get COVID-19 won’t end up in the hospital. For patients who are able to deal with the disease at home, providers may recommend extra doses of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc or melatonin to aid the immune system. Robertson said a two-week regimen of low-dose aspirin is routinely used to reduce certain symptoms such as nausea, and occasionally patients may be asked to come into a clinic for a liter of IV fluid. Consult with your physician before starting any medication regimen.
If you are not vaccinated and are at risk of progressing to a more severe case of COVID-19, Butte family physician Wendy Grace, who has been treating COVID patients both in and out of hospital settings, said you may also receive an infusion of monoclonal antibodies, a treatment the FDA approved for emergency use last fall. That may also be the case for people with diabetes, high blood pressure, or people who are immunocompromised. However, Rasmussen cautioned that Montanans shouldn’t count on the treatment being available, which is one of several reasons why he encourages people to get vaccinated.
“There is no guarantee that the hospitals will have the monoclonal antibodies to treat you. They’re in short supply,” Rasmussen said. “[Montana] is doing a great job of distributing them across the state, but at any given moment, you don’t know what that supply is at that particular facility that you present to.”
WHAT IF I DO GET HOSPITALIZED?
According to Robertson, most COVID-19 patients who are sick enough to require hospitalization are typically put on oxygen and receive a few days of steroids. Treatment can involve a host of health care professionals including a physician, a team of nurses, a pharmacist, a respiratory therapist and a physical therapist. Because COVID-19 can have a wide range of negative effects on various organs and bodily systems, those professionals will be on alert for any complications that might arise.
“COVID can cause kidney failure, it can cause respiratory failure,” Grace said. “It can cause strokes, it can cause blood clots in your lungs. All of these things typically require support in the hospital.”
Rasmussen said COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized should also expect to be separated from the rest of the hospital population to reduce the spread of the virus. For the most part, he added, how the hospital handles your situation when you walk in the door will likely be the same throughout the state.
“We know that every patient is at risk for a potential bad outcome because of the severity of this illness,” Rasmussen said. “So whether you’re in a small facility or you’re in a larger community hospital, the approaches are going to be the same: evaluating the level and the acuity of the disease and immediately delivering appropriate resources to address the condition.”
IS THE RISK AND TREATMENT FOR CHILDREN DIFFERENT?
Kalispell pediatric hospitalist Courtney Paterson said that while it’s true children generally don’t get as sick as adults when they get COVID-19, they can still “get pretty sick.” She’s cared for a range of young coronavirus patients from newborns with fevers to teenagers who have ended up in the ICU on ventilators and multiple medications. It may be less common, she said, but it’s “certainly possible.”
“The biggest thing is that when kids are critically ill like that, they truly need a dedicated pediatric space,” said Paterson, who also serves on the Montana Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ executive committee. “And so this isn’t as simple as if a 12 year old gets critically ill, we’ll just put them in the adult ICU with all the other adult COVID patients. That’s really not our best practice of care.”
Paterson explained that treating a child with COVID-19 requires a dedicated pediatric team, and specialized strategies to help make them more comfortable. At Logan Health, she said, that has included allowing parents to be at their child’s bedside and staff wearing badges displaying their faces without personal protective equipment. Windows in pediatric spaces have also allowed health care workers to interact with young patients safely while their faces are uncovered.
“When we’re outside the room with our PPE off, we can actually play games through the glass so that they know what we look like without all that stuff on,” Paterson said. “It is a process to constantly reassure patients they’re in a safe place so that we try to alleviate anxiety.”
One specific COVID-19 associated issue that health care workers have to be on the lookout for with pediatric patients is multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, or MIS-C. As the COVID-19 infection begins to wane, Paterson said, a child’s immune system can become confused and begin attacking the body instead of the virus. That can result in ongoing fever, stomach pains, vomiting and skin rash. It’s rare, Paterson added, but it’s where hospitals have seen the most morbidity among children from COVID-19.
“We had quite a few kids here in Kalispell in the last year that have come in with that and needed ICU-level support because their body is so inflamed [that] it’s attacking all of their organs, that they need critical care to be able to get through that,” she said.
I DON’T HAVE COVID-19, BUT I STILL NEED TO GO TO THE HOSPITAL. WHAT SHOULD I DO?
The medical experts interviewed by MTFP said that if you do need treatment, you should not delay seeking it. Whether it’s chest pain or a broken bone, putting off a hospital visit could make the situation worse. However, Butte physician Grace noted that if you can avoid the hospital right now, you should. Facilities are overwhelmed and resources are stretched thin. If a trip to the emergency room or clinic is unavoidable, she said, hospital staff will guide you through what to do to keep yourself and those around you safe.
“We’re asking people to wear masks, and most hospitals are limiting visitors to some degree,” Grace said. “But I think trying to avoid the hospital in the first place is the trick.”
I HAVE MORE QUESTIONS. WHO SHOULD I TALK TO?
Unanimously, everyone interviewed for this story agreed you should consult your primary care physician. And if you don’t have one, they recommend you get one.
“You start with your provider,” Byrd said. “Don’t go to Google, don’t go to Snapchat, don’t go to Facebook.”