Ballot petition
Credit: Adobe stock. May not be republished without license.

A proposed property tax cap and three other ballot initiatives supporters had hoped to put before Montana voters in November’s general election are dead in the water after failing to meet signature-gathering thresholds, their respective backers have said.

The failed proposals included CI-121, which would have amended the state Constitution to dramatically reconfigure Montana’s tax system by capping residential property taxes. That initiative, sponsored by Bozeman attorney Matt Monforton and State Auditor Troy Downing, had drawn opposition from organizations across Montana’s political spectrum, including the Montana Federation of Public Employees and the Montana Association of Realtors.

The tax cap measure’s opponents spent about $300,000 lobbying against it, said Montana Association of Realtors Government Affairs Director Sam Sill.

“A broad swath of Montanans recognized that this was going to be a disaster for the state,” Sill said. “It wasn’t going to be tax relief. It was going to be a tax shift, and the unintended consequences of it were going to be really terrifying.”

related

In an emailed statement Thursday, Monforton blamed the measure’s defeat on litigation that temporarily enjoined supporters from gathering signatures and opposition spending by “a conglomerate of liberal special interests and tax-and-spend Republicans.”

“The Legislature is addicted to overtaxing homeowners,” Monforton added. “This is a problem that is not going away. We will circulate a new initiative beginning in June 2023, which will give us plenty of time to qualify for the November 2024 ballot.”

Also failing to clear the signature-gathering threshold were CI-122, an election-reform measure, public preschool measure CI-123, and river protection measure I-191.

Montanans will, however, have the chance to vote on two measures referred to the ballot by the 2021 Montana Legislature. The first, C-48, would amend the Montana Constitution to explicitly specify that “electronic data and communications” are included in the clause that protects Montanans from “unreasonable searches and seizures.” Sponsored by Sen. Kenneth Bognar, R-Miles City, the measure passed the Legislature last year with bipartisan support.

The second proposal that will go before voters, LR-131, the Montana Born-Alive Infant Protection Act, is an anti-abortion measure that specifies that any infant born alive “must be treated as a legal person.” It passed the Legislature with GOP support on near party line votes.


The Montana Constitution provides a pathway for enacting law by voter initiative as a way for Montana citizens to craft policy in the face of inaction by the state Legislature. In order to qualify for the ballot, initiative backers must gather signatures from 5% of the state’s qualified voters, a 30,180-signature threshold this year. Initiatives that seek to modify the text of the state Constitution, rather than simply state law, face a higher 10% threshold: 60,359 signatures this year.

Before being submitted to voters, both types of initiatives must also meet requirements for gathering signatures from a certain number of legislative districts across the state. Initiatives and constitutional amendments that qualify for the ballot take effect if a majority of voters endorse them.

The signature-gathering bar proved too high a hurdle for this year’s crop of initiatives, however, particularly given that some spent time tied up in litigation.

Some of the tax cap measure’s opponents, for example, filed suit in January arguing that Attorney General Austin Knudsen hadn’t fully complied with a new law governing how initiatives with potential impact on Montana businesses are reviewed before backers are allowed to gather signatures. Signature gathering was temporarily blocked by a district court judge in Helena, but a Bozeman judge dismissed the case in April.

Two other measures advanced by John Meyer, executive director of Bozeman-based Cottonwood Environmental Law Center, also won’t make this year’s ballot, Meyer said earlier this month.

The first, CI-123, would have amended the state Constitution to include “prekindergarten” as part of the public education system guaranteed to Montanans. The second, I-191, would have designated portions of the Gallatin and Madison rivers as “Outstanding Resource Waters,” bypassing the state’s existing review process for that designation, which provides waterways with enhanced environmental protections.

In an email, Meyer blamed the failure of both measures on having his attention consumed by litigation against Montana Attorney General Austin Knuden, who had ruled CI-123 legally insufficient. That ruling prevented signature gathering on the measure until the insufficiency ruling was overturned by the Montana Supreme Court June 2.

I-191 was approved for signature gathering as of April 5 and CI-123 was approved for signature gathering on June 3. Both measures faced a June 17 deadline for submitting the required signatures to county election offices.

CI-122, this election’s fourth proposed initiative, would have amended the state Constitution so candidates would need to win elections with at least 50% of the vote, instead of simply winning the most votes of any candidate in their race, as is currently the case. The amendment would have directed the Montana Legislature to write laws to determine how to deal with elections in which no candidates win majorities, as when candidates in a three-way race each receive less than 50% of the vote.

Sponsor Chris Shipp, a Republican political consultant, said Thursday that CI-122 wouldn’t qualify for the ballot this year.

Disclosure: Montana Free Press reporter Amanda Eggert is married to Meyer. She was not involved in the production of this story.

latest stories

Tranel, Zinke, and Lamb spar over abortion, climate and energy

The three candidates for Montana’s newly created western congressional district squared off in person for the first time at a candidate forum in Missoula, landing glancing blows and setting the stage for a race that will elevate Montana issues to the national stage and localize national political dynamics as the major parties vie for control…

From Higgins to Bear Tracks

Earlier this month, a Missoula bridge over the Clark Fork river was officially renamed “Bear Tracks Bridge” in one of several efforts spearheaded by Missoula County to acknowledge the area’s cultural landscape.

Eric DietrichDeputy Editor

Eric came to journalism in a roundabout way after studying engineering at Montana State University in Bozeman (credit, or blame, for his career direction rests with the campus's student newspaper, the Exponent). He has worked as a professional journalist in Montana since 2013, with stints at the Great Falls Tribune, Bozeman Daily Chronicle, and Solutions Journalism Network before joining the Montana Free Press newsroom in Helena full time in 2019.